Sequential water treatment whereby the activated carbon stage is separate from the membrane filtration stage.
Two possibilities to use the activated carbon :
- fixed bed filter, with Granular Activated Carbon (GAC),
- under a powder form (suspension), as Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC).
The level of performance being identical, the choice of GAC or PAC is decided on a case by case basis, depending on parameters such as the raw water quality, the configuration of the existing installation, etc...
Each step has a specific role:
- Step 1 : removal of pesticides and organic matter by activated carbon,
- Step 2 : reduction of the turbidity and removal of micro-organisms by membrane filtration.
To manage the PAC within Opaline™, Multiflo™ Carb and Actiflo™ Carb processes can be considered upstream to the UF membranes